Fusion of C2 and C3: embryological and clinical perspective

*Parul Kaushal, Subhash Bhukya


Skeletal abnormalities in the upper cervical region may result in severe neck ache, altered mobility, muscular weakness and sensory deficits. Fused cervical vertebrae (FCV) have been reported in literature, however cases with fused articular facets have scarcely been documented. During routine osteology demonstration, we came across fused axis and the 3rd cervical vertebra. There was complete fusion of the vertebral arch on the left side along with complete fusion between the inferior articular facet of C2 and superior articular facet of C3. There was partial fusion between the bodies of the vertebrae and the right half of the vertebral arch. Owing to the vital role of this region in various neck movements and spinal alignment, knowledge of such asymmetric variations in the upper cervical region, is of immense importance to orthopedicians, radiologists, neurosurgeons, anaesthetists, physiotherapists.

Keywords: intubation, synostosis, axis, block vertebrae

Download PDF